On February 7th, 1837, a new county in New Jersey was formed by slicing off part of Gloucester County, the area had been named Little Egg Harbor.

The new county included settlements such as Hamilton, Galloway, Egg Harbor, and Weymouth; these four settlements sent representatives to the first county Board of Freeholders. The county seat of Mays Landing was established when the county was formed with a courthouse being built there in 1838.

The county was bounded on the north by the Mullica River, on the south by Great Egg Harbor Bay and the Tuckahoe River, on the west by Camden and Gloucester Counties, and on the east by the Atlantic Ocean. It is the third largest county in New Jersey by area, but just the fifteenth out of twenty-one by population. Atlantic City was chartered in 1854 and gambling was legalized in 1976, with the first casinos opening two years later.

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